Colostrum, often referred to as “liquid gold,” is the initial yellowish milk produced after giving birth, before the mature milk arrives a few days later. This precious substance is laden with benefits for newborns, such as bolstering their immune system, protecting against jaundice, and facilitating their first bowel movements.
If you’re a new parent, you likely have questions about colostrum, including its composition, when it’s produced, its benefits for your baby, and how to ensure your baby gets enough. We’ve enlisted the expertise of three professionals in the field—a pediatrician specializing in breastfeeding, a lactation consultant, and a neonatologist—to provide answers to the most common questions about colostrum.
What Does Colostrum Contain?
Colostrum is packed with essential nutrients tailored for a newborn’s needs, as well as immune-boosting components. It’s often called a baby’s first superfood due to its remarkable attributes. Colostrum delivers powerful antibodies that help fortify the infant’s immune system. It contains immune system components such as immunoglobulins, lactoferrin (an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory protein), and growth factors. Colostrum is nutritionally distinct, being higher in protein and lower in fat than mature milk. These differences in composition explain why a baby requires much less colostrum than mature milk.
What Does Colostrum Look Like?
Unlike the typical image of white breast milk, colostrum has a distinctive appearance. It’s usually yellowish, often earning it the nickname ‘liquid gold.’ However, colostrum can display various colors, including clear, white, or even orange, all of which are considered normal. In terms of consistency, colostrum is relatively thick and sticky, resembling honey.
When Does Colostrum Come In?
Colostrum production commences well before childbirth. Your body begins producing colostrum as early as 12-18 weeks into pregnancy. By the third trimester, some parents may express a small amount of colostrum by hand. In certain cases, pregnant individuals may notice leakage of colostrum. The onset of colostrum production does not necessarily signify that labor is imminent, as it can occur weeks or months before delivery.
The Benefits of Colostrum for Babies
Colostrum bestows a multitude of essential benefits to newborns, playing a crucial role in the first few days of life. Its primary benefit lies in enhancing the infant’s immune system. Colostrum is rich in immunoglobulins and other anti-infection proteins, offering protection to newborns whose immune systems are still in the early stages of development. Research reveals that colostrum contains white blood cells and antibodies like IgA, which are capable of combatting various pathogens, including salmonella, E. coli, rotavirus, streptococcus, and candida. Among its other notable benefits, colostrum:
- Prepares the baby’s gut microbiome.
- Facilitates the baby’s passage of meconium, their first stool.
- Provides the ideal volume of milk for the baby’s small stomach.
- Shields against the development of jaundice.
- Helps prevent issues related to low blood sugar.
- Offers a well-balanced and nutritious source of sustenance.
How Long Does Colostrum Last?
Colostrum has a limited duration of effectiveness. While it is continually produced from the mid-pregnancy stage through the first few days after birth, it gradually transitions to mature milk within a matter of days. In general, colostrum is available for the first 2-4 days following birth, before the transition to mature milk begins.
Colostrum vs. Breast Milk: What’s the Difference?
The most significant contrast between colostrum and breast milk is their availability. Colostrum is produced during the first few days after childbirth, while breast milk is produced throughout the breastfeeding period. Additionally, mature milk contains more fat and carbohydrates than colostrum, although it still retains immunoglobulins that offer ongoing protection as the baby grows. Colostrum and mature breast milk also differ in color, with colostrum appearing yellowish and mature breast milk being predominantly white. Mature milk is thinner than colostrum and may even have a bluish tint. Moreover, mature milk is produced in larger volumes than colostrum.
How Much Colostrum Does a Newborn Need?
Although colostrum is produced in smaller quantities than mature breast milk, the volume is perfectly suited to a newborn’s requirements. Most parents typically produce 1-4 teaspoons of colostrum per day, according to the American Pregnancy Association. During the first 24 hours of life, a newborn consumes about 5-15 milliliters (ml) of colostrum, corresponding to the size of their tiny stomach, which is approximately the size of a cherry. While colostrum production varies from parent to parent and baby to baby, it consistently increases with each passing day. Monitoring wet and soiled diapers and your baby’s weight can help ensure they are receiving adequate colostrum.
Expressing Colostrum if Your Baby Isn’t Nursing
In cases where direct breastfeeding is not possible, parents can still provide their babies with colostrum through expression and feeding. Hand expression is recommended for collecting colostrum, as its thickness may make it challenging to extract using a traditional breast pump. If a baby does not finish a bottle of formula, it is advisable to offer colostrum first, followed by formula if necessary. Expressing colostrum ensures that your baby receives the valuable benefits it provides. If you have concerns or face challenges related to colostrum and breastfeeding, consider consulting an OB-GYN, midwife, or lactation consultant for guidance and support.